ATMS 360 Atmospheric Instrumentation [main page] [assignments] [presentations] [previous notes 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 ].



Week 15: 8 May April

Final Exam: 15 minute presentations on Monday May 15th from 7:30 a.m.-9:30 a.m.

Sketches for the Weather Station Lab:
Instantaneous measurement sketch for the BME280, VEML, thermistor, IR sensor, chronodot, and microSD card.
Time averaging sketch for the same sensors, though time average length can be chosen.
Sketch to set the time on the Chronodot if needed.

Monday:

Empty the microSD cards.
We will use the instantaneous version of the sketch.
We will measure the vertical distribution of meteorology from the top of the Physics building.
We will start outside at the basement level, and walk the stairs to the roof.
Then we'll use fishing poles to lower the sensors to ground level and retrieve bring them back up.
Interpret your measurements for the presentation.

 

 

 

Week 14: 1 May April

Final Exam: 15 minute presentations on Monday May 15th from 7:30 a.m.-9:30 a.m.

Sketches for the Weather Station Lab:
Instantaneous measurement sketch for the BME280, VEML, thermistor, IR sensor, chronodot, and microSD card.
Time averaging sketch for the same sensors, though time average length can be chosen.
Sketch to set the time on the Chronodot if needed.

Monday:

We will summarize programming progress and get a working program on each sensor.
Confirm that the clocks are all reading close to the same values.
Confirm that data is being stored on the microSD card.
Do a vertical sounding of the Physics building as time permits.

Wednesday:

Retrieve the sensors from the roof.
Plot a time series of the data and interpret, to see what happened, and to make sure sensors are working.

Put the instantaneous measurement sketch on the board.
Do measurements on the quad as time permits (part 3 described on the white board).

Friday:

Part 2, surface albedo measurements: (especially good for a sunny day, but ok on cloudy days).
Do parts A) - C) for various surfaces, grass in the quad, asphalt in the parking lot behind the Physics building (in the sun), and concrete.
A) Do measurements pointing the sensor up (and flat) for a few minutes holding the sensor at about shoulder height so that downwelling solar radiation comes in (keep a notebook of times when you are doing various things.)  
B) Then hold the sensor upside down at shoulder height to measure the reflected solar radiation for a few minutes.  Be sure no sensors fall off the board. 
C) Then hold the sensor upside down, close to the ground, about 1" above the ground to measure the IR temperature of the surface and the temperature of the air, using the thermistor and the BME280 sensor.  The surface IR Brightness temperature and the near surface air temperature can be obtained from this.
  
D) Data analysis:  Make a time series of the data.  Label the time when the sensor was facing up, down, and near the ground. Solar sensor measurement values from part B / part A will give the broad band solar albedo.

 

Instruments at 5 pm on May 1st. Click images for larger version. Last image was at 9 pm after a cover was added.

 

Notes for Assignment 11: Click for larger image.

 

 

Week 13: 24 April

Friday:
Here's an updated starting sketch that includes the VEML light sensor and some compactness of the MicroSD card.

We're getting close to working sketches that combine all sensors.
Here's a site that talks about why using Serial.print(F("Print This")) is useful to save 'SRAM' memory by using Flash memory in the Arduino.

Wednesday: Add sketches for each sensor to the Weatherstation start sketch.
Save the weather station sketch under a new name when you add a sensor.
For example, WeatherStation_VEML when you add the VEML.
Then WeatherStation_VEML_BME280 when you add the BME280 sensor to it.

Continue working on hardware and software for Assignment 11. Work together to combine the software for the sensors.

New sketches for the VEML and BME280 Weather Station Lab: Add them to the WeatherStation_StartingPoint:
WeatherStation_StartingPoint_2023_ATMS360.ino (includes code for the thermistor, IR sensor, Chronodot, and MicroSD).
Sketch for the VEML 7700 solar sensor. (Autogain selects the best sensor settings). Install the Adafruit library for it.
Compact sketch for the BME280. Be sure to install the BME280 melopero library for it, see the top of the sketch.

Week 12: 17 April

Work on getting a portable weather station together.
See Assignment 11 for details.

Monday-Friday: Introduce compact breadboard methods. Scope the weather station project by placing the sensors on the board.

Add the microsd card reader for saving data. Wiring set up. Test it with the MicroSD card test sketch.
Add the Chronodot and set the time. Test it to make sure it's working correctly.

Sketches for the upcoming Weather Station Lab:
Set time on the Chronodot real time clock (RTC). (It is an I2C device.)
Read time from the Chronodot RTC to make sure it's working.
Test the MicroSD card writer.
Sketch for the VEML 7700 solar sensor. (Autogain selects the best sensor settings). Install the Adafruit library for it.
Compact sketch for the BME280. Be sure to install the BME280 melopero library for it, see the top of the sketch.

Chronodot for time measurement. Use the I2C interface. Chronodot set and read code for the Arduino.
Adafruit MicroSD card to save data using the SPI interface. Wiring set up.

Sensors and components:

Analog: Thermistor

Digital (I2C):
BME280 P, T, and RH.
AHT10 T and RH with a slotted circuit board to improve response time perhaps.
IR temperature sensor from assignment 10.
Visible light sensor (for sunlight).
Chronodot for reading and recording time.

Digital (SPI):
MicroSD card reader.

 

 

 

Week 11: 10 April

Python code to get archived data from Purple Air Sensors. If you need a lot of data it would be good to get your own API key.
You can get the pressure measurements from the sensor in the lab, or for other projects.
We should have Anaconda and Spyder on lab computers to do so.

Monday: We will look at the pressure measurements over the weekend and finish the pressure lab measurements.

Wednesday:
Discuss how to get archived data from Purple Air sensors.
Start on Assignment 10, IR sensor measurements. This will be a short lab.

Then we'll work on getting a weather station together, to be used outside.

As time permits, we will cover how to make electronic schematics.
Pressure sensor schematic made with ExpressPCB, and custom components for ExpressPCB.
(Unzip the components and put them in the Documents:ExpressPCB folder).

Sketches for the upcoming Weather Station Lab:
Set time on the Chronodot real time clock (RTC).
Read time from the Chronodot RTC to make sure it's working.

Write data to the microSD card reader example.

BME280 pressure sensor
Thermistor sensor
AHT temperature and humidity sensor.
IR sensor.

Related information.

Obtaining pressure in radiosondes from GPS altitude measurements combined with temperature and relative humidity measurements. (Local backup).

 

Week 10: 3 April

Friday: We will set up the pressure sensors to measure all weekend.

As time permits, we will cover how to make electronic schematics.
Pressure sensor schematic made with ExpressPCB, and custom components for ExpressPCB.
(Unzip the components and put them in the Documents:ExpressPCB folder).

Reminder: Contents of lab reports.

Continue with assignment 9, pressure measurements. See assignment 9 for more details.

Pressure measurement schematic. Click image for larger version.

 

 

 

Week 9: 27 March

Reminder: Contents of lab reports.

Bring questions about assignment 8, to class.
Complete measurements and response time determination for the thermistor.

Start assignment 9, pressure measurements. See assignment 9 for more details.

Pressure measurement schematic. Click image for larger version.


 

 

 

Week 8: 13 March

Reminder: Contents of lab reports.

Friday:
Finish curve fitting the TMP36.
Do measurements of the thermistor response time. First comment out the time writing line, and look at the output on the serial plotter. Study the Sketch.

Wednesday: We will modify the TMP36 sketch to avoid using LEDs indicators for action.
Driving the LED causes a slight reduction in the 5 volt supply in some Arduinos, leading to a jump in the data.
The LED on and off statements were removed.
The sensor will be heated for 2 minutes and cooled for 5 minutes, using your phone or internet to keep time.
Here's a new sketch to use for it.

Work on assignment 8, temperature sensors, using the Arduino interface.
This lab work must be done in person: Attend class.

We will use CoolTerm to get data from the Arduino.

Notes for temperature measurements in assignment 8. Click on image for larger version.

 

 

Week 7: 6 March

Continue assignment 7 working with atmospheric sensors using the Arduino interface.
This lab work must be done in person: Attend class.

We will use CoolTerm to get data from the Arduino.

It's important to ask questions and make sure that you understand how things work,
and the overall prospective for the labs, in addition to carrying them out.
I want to be sure you really understand what's going on.

Snowflakes from this morning. Falling ice crystals intercepted super cooled cloud droplets that froze on them. Click on images for larger version.

 

Week 6: 27 February

Snow day for Wednesday: We will hold class through Zoom. Zoom recording.

Discussion of how to photograph snow flakes. (Tis the season).

Discuss sensors we will be using for assignment 8.
Thermistors. We will be using this type of thermistor. Presentation discussing thermistors. Schematic we'll use.
Presentation for the TMP36 band gap temperature sensor. Schematic we'll use. Data sheet for the sensor.
Band gap discussion.

Discussion of measurement uncertainty. (local backup).

Arduino namesake.

Since in person class was cancelled we will have a Zoom class meeting, and the Zoom recording is available for those that weren't able to attend in person.
Look at WebCampus for Zoom link.

We will use this Powerpoint presentation on photoresistors.

Here is a very friendly introduction to electronics.

The assignment 7 due date was changed to next Sunday March 6th. We may need to adjust this further due to weather.
Start now on part 1, introduction describing the Arduino. Read about photoresistors. We'll look at some examples in class.

The lab report style is discussed here.

Monday, Wednesday, Friday: Homework: Study this presentation that summarizes the introduction to Arduino Uno.

Continue assignment 7 working with atmospheric sensors using the Arduino interface.
This lab work must be done in person: Attend class.

NOTE: When working with Arduinos, connect to USB only after you have wired up your circuit and checked it.

 

Week 5: 20 February

Friday: No class, snow delay. UNR opens at 10 am.

Monday: No class, President's Day.

Wednesday and Friday: Homework: Study this presentation that summarizes the introduction to Arduino Uno.

Continue assignment 7 working with atmospheric sensors using the Arduino interface.
This lab work must be done in person: Attend class.

NOTE: When working with Arduinos, connect to USB only after you have wired up your circuit and checked it.

Get Acquainted:
Introduce the Arduino IDE and used it to blink the LED, the first experiment in the Vilros book.
Change the blink frequency until the light looks continuous.
Look at the signal used to drive the LED with the oscilloscope.
View and discuss modified Arduino code for simplifying the observation.

Next, work on assignment 7 part 2.

 

Week 4: 13 February

Monday:

Finish presentations for Assignment 6. We will meet in LP208, the Physics conference room.
Summarize findings for radar and cloud imagery.

Wednesday and Friday:

Start assignment 7 working with atmospheric sensors using the Arduino interface.
This lab work must be done in person: Attend class.

NOTE: When working with Arduinos, connect to USB only after you have wired up your circuit and checked it.

Get Acquainted:
Introduce breadboarding and digital voltmeters. With the person next to you, measure the voltage used for various resistance settings, and measure the voltmeter internal resistance.
Introduce resistors and color code for resistance values.
Introduce the Arduino IDE and used it to blink the LED, the first experiment in the Vilros book.
Change the blink frequency until the light looks continuous.
Look at the signal used to drive the LED with the oscilloscope.
View and discuss modified Arduino code for simplifying the observation.
Presentation that summarizes the introduction to Arduino Uno.

Breadboard. Examples of connected sockets are circled. They are connected to each other and nothing else. Click for larger image.

 

Notes for LED blink exercise: Click for larger version.

 

Basic intro to voltmeter measurements.
Click for larger picture.

 

Related information.

Hurricane Harvey IR movie by Fabiola as an example of the exquisite detail available from GOES satellite imagery.

Derecho overlay of IR image and radar by Niko.

Manual that works with the parts kit we use in class:
Direct link
Local backup.
Software for the manual and parts kit we use in class:
Direct link
Local backup

Arduino notes.

Interpretation of the radar correlation coefficient. (local backup).

 

Week 3: 6 February

Friday:

Presentations for Assignment 6. We will meet in LP208, the Physics conference room.
We will continue on Monday as needed.

Monday and Wednesday:

Part 1 of Assignment 6 should be finished. We will discuss it on Monday. Bring your images and site location to class.
Also bring questions to class.

We will start on Part 2 of assigment 6.

We likely will have presentations for Assignment 6 starting on Friday.

 

Related information.

Radar discussion to read as homework.

Wiki radar discussion.

Warm and cold air advection discussion.

Hurricane Harvey IR movie by Fabiola.

Interpretation of the radar correlation coefficient. (local backup).

 

 

 

Week 2: 30 January

Monday: CLASS CANCELLED DUE TO WEATHER

Radar discussion to read as homework.

Wednesday:

Begin assignment 6.

Radar presentation. More details, and Doppler velocity observations.

Related information.

Wiki radar discussion.

NASA EPSCOR UNR undergrad research scholarship opportunity.

Look at the CONUS radar and IR satellite imagery at the same time.

Interpretation of the radar correlation coefficient. (local backup).

 

 

Week 1: 23 January

Wednesday:

NASA EPSCOR UNR undergrad research scholarship opportunity.

Look at the CONUS radar and IR satellite imagery at the same time.

Look at the number concentration of aerosol larger than 0.3 microns in the classroom and in Reno, to get a rough idea of the cloud condensation nuclei concentration (CCN).

Radar discussion.
What's under the dome?
Continue with Assignment 5.

Monday:

Introductions
Orientation

Places to learn about what is going on in this class:
Daily Notes (here).
Assignments. Assignments 1-6 have been posted, review them.
Syllabus.
Webcampus.

A free, online Atmospheric Science textbook is available for students new to the field.
Free online Introductory Textbook for Atmospheric Science and local backup.

How to keep a lab notebook to record what you do and help in lab report writing.
a. Make a table of contents at the back.
b. Number the pages so you can add entries to the table of content.
Discussion of lab notebooking from CU.

Begin assignments on meteorological radar
Radar measurements of precipitation and air motion are very important and central to atmospheric science.
Example current data.

Weather radar presentation as powerpoint and as a pdf document for understanding radar and dbZ.
Needed for homework 5 and 6.

Notes For Homework 5: Click image for larger version

 

Radar data, dBz and its relationship to radar backscatter.
Click on image for larger size.

 

Related information.

Example of current radar data.

Atmospheric Instruments used at the DOE ARM meteorological/climate studies sites.

Meaurement uncertainty and local backup.